Forest Preserve District of Cook County, Illinois
Nature Bulletins
Newton Home Page

Introduction and Instructions

Search Engine

Table of Contents



Old Rail Fences
Nature Bulletin No. 240-A    October 15, 1966
Forest Preserve District of Cook County
Seymour Simon, President
Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation

Between a hundred and a hundred fifty years ago, the early settlers came to the Middle West and began to chop out clearings in its vast and somber forests. To clear the trees and brush from a few acres of land and plant the first crops, among the stumps, required much hard labor. But wood was very necessary to these pioneers -- half-hunters, half- farmers. It furnished logs for their log cabins and barns; fuel for their fireplaces; material for furniture, implements and primitive tools. Logs were split into rails for building corn cribs, hog pens, sheds and, most important, for fencing their fields.

Until the turn of the century these rail fences or "worm" fences were a characteristic and picturesque feature of rural landscapes throughout the region of our original hardwood forests. Most of them have now been replaced by wire fences, but a few remnants may still be seen here and there. They were called "worm" or "snake" fences because the rails were criss-crossed in a zigzag fashion. Very few new rails are made any more because they can only be split successfully from large, straight, solid logs without knots, such as the oaks and walnuts that grew in virgin timber.

The log was cut four "ax handles" long -- about eleven feet. The bark was peeled off and wooden mauls and wooden wedges, made of ironwood or other very hard wood, were used to split it into halves, then quarters, then eighths, like pieces of pie. These in turn were split into roughly triangular or rectangular rails measuring about 4 by 4 or 3 by 5 inches. The rails were laid on the ground in a very exact zigzag pattern with the ends extending a little over a foot from where they crossed. After the fence was seven or eight rails high, each corner was strengthened and braced by two other rails, or stakes, one on each side, sunk a foot or more in the ground and slanted upward to cross and hold the fence in place. These stake rails, in turn, were locked in place by an additional horizontal rail or "rider". Between seven and eight thousand rails were needed to build a mile of "worm" fence -- enough to enclose a forty-acre field.

Such fences, made entirely without any hardware, were quite serviceable for confining horses, cattle, sheep and hogs. However, some rails rotted and others broke, year by year, and they were rebuilt in other designs which used fewer rails and occupied less land. It seems quite certain that many of the rails now remaining are survivors from those original fences built when the land was first cleared. None remain except red oak, white oak and black walnut, weathered and gray but as sound as the day they were split. All those made from less durable woods are gone.

"Worm" fences seemed a prodigal waste of land in later years because they occupied from three to four times as much ground as the modern barbed wire and woven wire fences. They quickly grew up in wild roses, wild raspberries, wild blackberries, weeds and vines, furnishing food and cover for a host of wildlife. With the clearing of the timber and more and more intense cultivation of the land, these fences offered refuges where the quail, the cottontail rabbit and dozens of other birds and animals learned to live with civilization.

A favorite game played by generations of country school children was to see who could walk the top rail farthest without tumbling off.

Many an undesirable citizen left town riding on a rail.

To return to the Nature Bulletins Click Here!
Hosted by NEWTON

NEWTON is an electronic community for Science, Math, and Computer Science K-12 Educators, sponsored and operated by Argonne National Laboratory's Educational Programs, Andrew Skipor, Ph.D., Head of Educational Programs.

For assistance with NEWTON contact a System Operator (, or at Argonne's Educational Programs

Educational Programs
Building 360
9700 S. Cass Ave.
Argonne, Illinois
60439-4845, USA
Update: June 2012
Sponsered by Argonne National Labs