Forest Preserve District of Cook County, Illinois
Nature Bulletins
Newton Home Page

Introduction and Instructions

Search Engine

Table of Contents



Mammals of Early Chicago
Nature Bulletin No. 126   October 11, 1947
Forest Preserve District of Cook County
William N. Erickson, President
Roberts Mann, Supt. of Conservation

When the white man came to Chicago -- when it was only an Italian portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi valley, with trails leading to it from all directions -- there were a number of large mammals which lived or visited here. Largest of these was the bison, or American buffalo. The bull bison sometimes weighed more than a ton and his shoulders stood as high as a man' s head.

The bison roamed and grazed the Great Plains, the short grass prairies, which they preferred because of the short yet highly nutritious grasses there. But there are tales, handed down by the Indians, of huge herds migrating through this Chicago region, as far south as the Ohio River, followed by the Sioux Indians for whom they were the chief source of food, clothing and shelter.

Next in size was the wapiti, or American elk. We have a herd of elk in a fenced pasture at Elk Grove Preserve. In the Sag valley swamp, perfectly preserved beneath six feet of peat, a very large pair of elk antlers was recently found. There were many white-tailed or Virginia deer, and these have been re-introduced into the Palos and Deer Grove forest preserves where they again roam wild.

There were porcupines and snowshoe rabbits here as late as 1822. There were four animals famous for their fur the beaver, the otter, the marten, and the fisher. The beaver was most important. Beaver hides, with their valuable fur, were used instead of money. It was beaver that lured trappers and traders to explore and settle this region, part of the Northwest Territory.

There was black bear, timber wolves, and the panther -- also called the painter or puma or cougar or mountain lion. There were the Canada lynx and the bobcat or bay lynx. The bobcat is still found in the timbered bluffs along the Illinois side of the Mississippi River. All of these took toll of the pioneer' s livestock.

These days our wolves don't howl. They whistle.

To return to the Nature Bulletins Click Here!
Hosted by NEWTON

NEWTON is an electronic community for Science, Math, and Computer Science K-12 Educators, sponsored and operated by Argonne National Laboratory's Educational Programs, Andrew Skipor, Ph.D., Head of Educational Programs.

For assistance with NEWTON contact a System Operator (, or at Argonne's Educational Programs

Educational Programs
Building 360
9700 S. Cass Ave.
Argonne, Illinois
60439-4845, USA
Update: June 2012
Sponsered by Argonne National Labs