How do I tell if an element/compound/ion is a dipole?
If you have a compound that has a dipole, and if you put enough of these
molecules together, then the collection of them will have properties that
we can measure on a large scale. This would be the electrical
permitivity. So this is how you could see experimentally how much dipole
moment you have.
If you just ask this as a conceptual question, then any compound that can
separate + and - charges, say a molecule which likes to have a positive end
and an negative end, would have a dipole. For example if something had
sort of an acidic end (sort of ++) and a basic end (--). .
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Update: June 2012