How are synthetically created elements made?
The short but not particularly informative answer is in nuclear reactions.
Most of these fall into three categories:
1. Nuclear fission. A heavy nucleus splits into smaller parts, usually
after capturing a neutron (see number 2). This creates two atomic nuclei
with lower atomic numbers. Usually, these quickly decay to stable isotopes,
but some become long-lived radioactive elements such as Technetium-99.
2. Neutron capture. A result of nuclear fission in addition to the smaller
atoms produced is several neutrons. As a consequence, nuclear reactors,
which are powered by nuclear fission reactions, produce energetic neutrons.
These can strike an atomic nucleus and add to it. The new nucleus can then
beta-decay raise its atomic number (changing one neutron to a proton). This
is how elements such as neptunium, plutonium, and americium are made.
3. Proton capture. Proton beams are made in some particle accelerators,
and can add to nuclei just as neutrons do. (This is difficult, as the
positively-charged proton is electricallly repelled by the
Richard E. Barrans Jr., Ph.D.
PG Research Foundation, Darien, Illinois
Synthetic elements are elements that do not exist in nature. A common way
to make them is to shoot a beam of protons or neutrons at a natural element,
often uranium. Sometimes extra protons or neutrons go into the atoms,
expanding it into a different atom. It is possible to expand it into an
atom that doesn't naturally occur. Many atoms made this way break apart
almost immediately. A few can stay together long enough to use as
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Update: June 2012