Energy to Matter
If matter can be "converted" to energy, as suggested by
the theory of relativity, can energy be alternately "converted" to
matter? what conditions are needed to carry out this process?
Also.. if particles could be created by this process, is there a way to
form matter that is stable? Or would all matter formed thus be prone to
Yes. This happens all the time in the target area of a particle
accelerator. Both stable and unstable particles can be made in this
way. You always make particle-antiparticle pairs, so you need energy
equivalent to twice the rest mass of a particle to get anything.
Matter can be formed from energy.
One example of this is reverse beta-decay. If an electron, an
anti-neutrino, and a proton come together with enough kinetic energy, they
may join into a neutron. The neutron has more mass than the original three
particles. If the neutron is within an atom, it may stay put.
A more dramatic example is the stream of particles that come from a nuclear
explosion. Much of the original mass turns into energy. Afterwards some of
the energy turns into mass, many of them particles that did not exist within
the original nuclear fuel.
No, once matter is converted to energy, it is used. Energy is converted
into mechanical or electrical energy or just lost to the atmosphere as heat
energy. This is why there are people trying to figure out new forms of
energy -- because fossil fuels and the like will eventually run out.
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Update: June 2012