Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory Office of Science NEWTON's Homepage NEWTON's Homepage
NEWTON, Ask A Scientist!
NEWTON Home Page NEWTON Teachers Visit Our Archives Ask A Question How To Ask A Question Question of the Week Our Expert Scientists Volunteer at NEWTON! Frequently Asked Questions Referencing NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Soap and Water Surface Tension
Name: Michelle S.
Status: student
Age: 16
Location: N/A
Country: N/A
Date: 1999-2001


Question:
Why does soap change the surface tension of water on wax paper, typing paper,and paper towel?


Replies:
Each of these types of paper are quite different substrates. Soap is one of a class of chemical substances called surfactants, an acronym for surface active agents. In general surfactants have a hydrophylic [water loving] end and a hydrophobic [water hating] end. The soap [surfactant] tends to orient on the surface of water so that the hydrophylic end is directed toward the water phase and the hydrophobic end is oriented toward air or whatever hydrophobic surface is in contact with the aqueous solution. This surface orientation property greatly changes the surface properties of the water phase.

In the case of wax paper -- very hydrophobic -- the hydrophobic end of the surfactant adheres to, or is attracted to, this hydrophobic surface. However this hydrophobic end is attached to the hydrophylic end, which is in turn, buried in the water phase. As a result the water phase "wets" the wax paper, coupled by the surfactant. In the absence of surfactant the water would "bead up" on the wax paper. This coupling of hydrophobic and hydrophylic phases by the surfactant is also the reason "soapy" water removes oily dirt from fabric.

Typing paper, and other copier paper, is of course cellulose fiber. However, it is usually surface treated with a variety of agents that make the paper more receptive to the inks used in typing, copying, and computer printer inks. These treatments tend to make the surface more hydrophobic. These papers are also more porous than wax paper, so that is an issue too. In these types of paper soap, or other surfactant, tends to make the paper more receptive to the usually more hydrophobic inks. In actual practice this is a more sophisticated because ink receptivity and what is called ink "holdout" has to be more carefully balanced. You don't want the ink to stay completely on the surface, but at the same time you don't want the ink to get sucked into the paper too much either.

Paper towels need to be designed to absorb both water and oil -- paper towels need to be porous, so those types of papers have lower fiber density, do not have any surface treatment, but may contain surfactants that render the cellulose fiber receptive to both oily and watery liquids.

So papers in general are highly formulated products to meet various properties needed for the application for which they are intended.

Vince Calder



Click here to return to the General Topics Archives

NEWTON is an electronic community for Science, Math, and Computer Science K-12 Educators, sponsored and operated by Argonne National Laboratory's Educational Programs, Andrew Skipor, Ph.D., Head of Educational Programs.

For assistance with NEWTON contact a System Operator (help@newton.dep.anl.gov), or at Argonne's Educational Programs

NEWTON AND ASK A SCIENTIST
Educational Programs
Building 360
9700 S. Cass Ave.
Argonne, Illinois
60439-4845, USA
Update: June 2012
Weclome To Newton

Argonne National Laboratory