Aniline and Mauveine Dyes
Name: Andrew K.
In the mid-19th century, the first synthetic dyes were
treated (the aniline dye mauveine was discovered accidentally by Perkins
and subsequently various aniline dyes were mass-produced), which would
evolutionize the textile and printing dye industries. This in turn had a
radical effect on printmaking in Japan when the aniline dyes were
imported from Britain and Germany, and largely replaced traditional
organic inks used in woodblock prints.
In order to better understand the printmaking process of the time, and the
conservation of prints from this period, we want to know about the
solubilities of mauveine (aniline purple) and fugitive fuschein (aniline
(1) In what solvent(s), other than water and alcohols, are aniline purple
and aniline red MOST soluble ?
(2) Is there a common solvent in which both aniline purple and aniline
red are INSOLUBLE ?
Google search turned up two interesting sites for your info:
It is interesting that Mauveine Purple structure was not definitive
until 1994. The chemical identity of Aniline Red is tricky to find there
seem to be several dyes that carry that label. The probably one is Alizirine
red, but the search term uncovered other structures with the name "aniline
Regarding solubility, Mauveine Purple is soluble in ethanol according to
the first web site above. It should also be soluble in chloroform, methylene
chloride, n-methyl pyrrolidone, pyrrolidone, acetone, and toluene. The four
nitrogen groups may make it soluble in acid, say HCL, and it could be
fractionally precipitated by adding base, e.g. NaOH or ammonia. As the pH
increases, the dye should precipitate out. Ethanol, acetone, and pyrrolidone
are compatible with water so if you want to dissolve the dye and precipitate
it, you could dissolve it in one of these solvents and add water dropwise
with stirring. As more water is added the dye will become less soluble in
the mixed solvent and begin to precipitate out.
Which solvent(s) you use depends upon what you want to do with the dye
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Update: June 2012