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Name: Jack R.
Status: Student
Age: 20s
Location: N/A
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Date: N/A

How can I measure contact angle between molten steel and sand mould?

Without sounding flippant, the answer is,"With great difficulty!!" You are talking about high temperatures, reactions of molten metals with the atmospheric gases, and a host of other experimental difficulties. Even getting the sand mold and the molten steel to the same temperature could be daunting.

And the contact angle, even on the easiest of systems, is of questionable reliability because small amounts of impurities on the surface of the liquid phase can cause wildly different results.

Vince Calder

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