Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory Office of Science NEWTON's Homepage NEWTON's Homepage
NEWTON, Ask A Scientist!
NEWTON Home Page NEWTON Teachers Visit Our Archives Ask A Question How To Ask A Question Question of the Week Our Expert Scientists Volunteer at NEWTON! Frequently Asked Questions Referencing NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Detergent and Oil Spills
Name: Gina H.
Status: educator
Age: 30s
Location: N/A
Country: N/A
Date: Saturday, October 12, 2002


Question:
Why does dish detergent clean oiled wildlife so well? Why not use dish detergent to clean up an oil spill?


Replies:
Gina,

The detergent emulsifies the oil and enables it to be rinsed away. Do a web-search for the word "micelle." It is a term used to describe the manner in which oil and water (which do not mix) can become compatible long enough for water to remove oil from a soiled material.

By the way, wildlife cleaned by detergents do not always survive the treatment because it damages the animal's/bird's fur/feathers by removing naturally present protective oils native the soiled creature.

Why it is not used to clean up oil spills: It is used in a very limited way. However, detergents are relatively costly and many oil spills are simply far too large to be addressed by application of any detergent.

Regards,
ProfHoff 502


Dish detergent cleans oiled wildlife by normal detergent action: the oil-loving "tails" of the detergent molecules cluster around oil globules, and the water-loving "heads" of the detergent molecules face into the water solution so that the oil droplets are carried away in the water.

The problem with trying to clean up an oil spill this way is that this soapy water with oil droplets dispersed in it is waste. The detergent does not destroy the oil, it just disperses it in water. So what can you do with all this oil-carrying water? If there is an oil spill in the ocean, the most important thing to do is keep the oil as contained as possible so that it doesn't foul many surfaces or living things. Adding detergent to an oil spill would actually make it harder to contain.

Richard E. Barrans Jr., Ph.D.
Director of Academic Programs
PG Research Foundation, Darien, Illinois


Detergent breaks up the puddle of oil into very small bits by surrounding it with molecules of water soluble compounds. When the water soluble compounds are dissolved in water they take the oil with them. This just spreads the oil around.

With an oil spill you want to actually remove most of the oil from the environment rather than dispersing it. You would pick up as much oil as possible and when that was done you might use a detergent to disperse what was left. (Note: This is not to say that is what is actually done with oil spills -- there are probably much more effective and less damaging ways of treating them.)

Greg Bradburn



Click here to return to the Chemistry Archives

NEWTON is an electronic community for Science, Math, and Computer Science K-12 Educators, sponsored and operated by Argonne National Laboratory's Educational Programs, Andrew Skipor, Ph.D., Head of Educational Programs.

For assistance with NEWTON contact a System Operator (help@newton.dep.anl.gov), or at Argonne's Educational Programs

NEWTON AND ASK A SCIENTIST
Educational Programs
Building 360
9700 S. Cass Ave.
Argonne, Illinois
60439-4845, USA
Update: June 2012
Weclome To Newton

Argonne National Laboratory